What does pTNM?

Pathological Tumor-Node-Metastasis (pTNM) Staging for Papillary and Follicular Thyroid Carcinomas: A Retrospective Analysis of 700 Patients.

What is the TNM cancer staging system?

A system to describe the amount and spread of cancer in a patient’s body, using TNM. T describes the size of the tumor and any spread of cancer into nearby tissue; N describes spread of cancer to nearby lymph nodes; and M describes metastasis (spread of cancer to other parts of the body).

What is Y in TNM staging?

To indicate that the clinical or pathologic classification has been determined after preoperative therapy, the TNM classification of the International Union Against Cancer1 and American Joint Committee on Cancer2 includes a prefix “y,” with yc indicating the clinical classification and yp the pathologic classification.

What does the T stand for in TNM?

In the TNM system: The T refers to the size and extent of the main tumor. The main tumor is usually called the primary tumor. The N refers to the the number of nearby lymph nodes that have cancer. The M refers to whether the cancer has metastasized.

Is grade 2 breast cancer serious?

These cancers tend to grow and spread slowly and have a good outlook (prognosis). Intermediate grade (grade 2) the cells look quite different to normal breast cells. They are moderately differentiated. This means the features and outlook (prognosis) are somewhere between well and poorly differentiated.

What does P mean in TNM staging?

The letter p is sometimes used before the letters TNM. For example, pT4. This stands for pathological stage. It means that doctors based the staging on examining cancer cells in the lab after surgery to remove a cancer.

What does Y mean in staging?

y: clinical (yc) or pathological (yp) data following systemic or radiation therapy be it prior to surgery or as a primary treatment. r: clinical or pathological staging at the time of retreatment or recurrence for disease progression. a: for cancers discovered at autopsy (e.g. aT1)