What is the pathophysiology of valvular heart disease?

Valvular heart disease (VHD) is caused by either damage or defect in one of the four heart valves, aortic, mitral, tricuspid or pulmonary. Defects in these valves can be congenital or acquired. Age, gender, tobacco use, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and type II diabetes contribute to the risk of disease.

What is the pathophysiology of mitral valve regurgitation?

Mitral regurgitation (MR) is caused by the retrograde flow of blood from the left ventricle (LV) into the left atrium (LA) through the mitral valve (MV), causing a systolic murmur heard best at the apex of the heart with radiation to the left axilla.

What causes mitral valve problems?

Causes. One of the main causes of mitral valve stenosis is rheumatic heart disease. This is where an infection causes the heart to become inflamed. Over time, it can cause the flaps of the mitral valve to become hard and thick.

What is the pathology of mitral valve prolapse?

Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is characterized primarily by myxomatous degeneration of the mitral valve leaflets. In younger populations, there is gross redundancy of both the anterior and posterior leaflets and chordal apparatus. This is the extreme form of myoxomatous degeneration, known as Barlow’s syndrome.

What is the most common valvular heart disease?

Degenerative valve disease is the most common form of valvular heart disease in the United States, whereas rheumatic heart disease accounts for most valve pathology in developing nations. As the US population ages, physicians are likely to see more patients with degenerative valve disorders.

What is the function of the mitral valve in the heart?

The mitral valve is one of four valves in the heart. It regulates blood flow from the upper left chamber (left atrium) into the lower left chamber (left ventricle). The left ventricle is the heart’s main pumping chamber. A normal mitral valve has two flaps, or leaflets.

What is mitral valve disorder?

Mitral valve disease is a condition where there is impairment in the flow of blood from left atrium to the left ventricle. There are different types of mitral valve diseases: Atresia . It is a congenital birth defect wherein the mitral valve is not formed correctly resulting in improper flow of blood in the left ventricle.

What is mitral insufficiency?

Mitral insufficiency. Jump to navigation Jump to search. Mitral regurgitation (MR), mitral insufficiency, or mitral incompetence, is a form of valvular heart disease in which the mitral valve does not close properly when the heart pumps out blood.

Where is the mitral valve?

Anatomical terminology. The mitral valve (/ˈmaɪtrəl/), also known as the bicuspid valve or left atrioventricular valve, is a valve with two flaps in the heart, that lies between the left atrium and the left ventricle.