What is an occluded graft?

The phrase “vein graft occlusion” implies the graft is 100 percent closed (occluded). Ordinarily, this means there is no option for percutaneous revascularization of the graft itself, particularly if the occlusion is chronic.

What happens when bypass graft fails?

Third, patients presenting with bypass graft failure are often old (mean age was 68–70 years in this study) and have worse baseline left ventricular function, hence may be at increased risk for heart failure or arrhythmias, and for developing noncardiac disease, such as infections and cancer.

What causes graft occlusion?

Ischemia Due to Graft Occlusion 12.6) is uncommon, with bypass patency rates > 97% in multiple series. Contributing factors include prolonged hypotension, hypovolemia, or intraoperative difficulties creating the anastomosis, particularly when the diameter of the donor and recipient vessels are too small or mismatched.

What causes early CABG graft failure?

The angiographies showed graft failure in 43 (73%) patients. The most common causes of graft failure were vein graft thrombosis (32%), poor run off to the native coronary artery (17%) and IMA graft thrombosis or stenosis (12%), other rare causes were identified in a few patients (Table 2).

Why do grafts fail?

After grafting, the implanted vein remodels to become more arterial, as veins have thinner walls than arteries and can handle less blood pressure. However, the remodeling can go awry and the vein can become too thick, resulting in a recurrence of clogged blood flow.

Can bypass grafts be stented?

After a bypass, the graft may narrow or close up over time. And it’s not uncommon for bypass recipients to develop narrowings in other arteries. Both problems can be treated with stents. But neither a stent nor bypass surgery stops atherosclerosis, the disease process that clogs coronary arteries in the first place.

How often do CABG grafts fail?

Accepted for publication Feb 22, 2019. Approximately 50% of saphenous vein grafts (SVGs) fail by 5 to 10 years post-coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and between 20–40% fail within the first year (1,2).

How to improve vein graft patency after CABG?

SVG failure is a complex, multifactorial process and is related to adverse outcomes after CABG. SVG occlusion rates are around 11% at 1 year after CABG. Technical factors during surgery and SVG construction are important in optimizing SVG patency.

When is early graft failure after CABG a serious complication?

In conclusion, early graft failure after surgery is an infrequent but serious complication after CABG. Coronary angiography is a reliable tool to confirm the diagnosis and to determine the reason of ongoing ischaemia.

What is the rate of graft occlusion before discharge?

The rate of graft occlusion before discharge varies from 3 to 12% for vein grafts, 3 to 4% for radial arteries and 1 to 2.5% for internal mammary arteries [11, 12]. Prevention of postoperative graft failure starts with harvesting vessels for CABG. A special attention must be taken not to injure the endothelium.

What causes the stump of a bypass graft to occlude?

The first image demonstrates the stump of an occluded right femoropopliteal artery bypass graft. Graft occlusion is commonly the result of stenosis at the anastomosic sites. The precise role of thrombolysis in the treatment of bypass graft thrombosis is somewhat controversial.